Saturday, May 7, 2016

land of science

Iran, the land of science and art

What follows is a short list of some on the great men and women from Iran’s cultural continent, the lands which constitute the historical understanding of Iran. The lives of these people reflect some of the efforts of Iranian people in various fields of human aspiration. Iranians have had remarkable contributions to the entirety of a Human civilization. From the establishment of the Persian empire and the inscription of what later came to be known as the first charter of human rights, vis. the cylinder, to considerable contributions to astronomy, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, and language in the ancient world.

Cyrus the great
(Kurosh-e kabir in modern Persian), Cyrus the great (circa 590-529 BC) was the founder of Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty.

Ferdowsi (935-1020 CE)
Hakim Abul Qasem ferdowsi Tusi was a highly revered Persian poet. The Shahnameh, is the most popular and influential national epic belonging to the Iranian people which the author was ferdowsi.

The first great literary genius of modern Persian language, who composed poems in the new Persian was Abdullah Jafar Ibn Mohammad Rudaki (859-941 CE), also spelt as Rudagi or rudhagi, who was a Persian poet.

Abu Nasr Mohammad Ibn Farakh Farabi or Abu Nasr Farabi, He was also a cosmologist, logician, musician, psychologist and sociologist. Farabi was the first Muslim logician to develop a non-Aristotelian logic. also known in the west as Alpharabius, Alfarabi, Farabi, Farabi, and Abunasr (c. 872-between 14 December 950 and 12 January 951) was an Iranian Muslim poly math and one of the greatest scientists and philos0phers of Persia and the Islamic world in his time.

Imam Khomeini
Ruhullah Musawi Khomeini (September 24, 1902 – June 3, 1989) was a senior shia Muslem scholar and marga (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran which was the dethronement of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last king of Iran. Following the revolution, Imam Khomeini became the country’s Supreme leader-the paramount political figure of the new Islamic Republic.

Amir Kabir
Mirza Taghi khan Amiv-Nezam, served as prime minister of Persia (Iran) under Nasereddin shah (the emperor). Born in Hazaveh a county of Arak, and murdered in 1852, he is “widely respected by liberal nationalist Iranian” as Iran’s first reformer, a modernizer who was unjustly struck down attempted to bring quantized reform to Iran. Amir Kabir started some reformer movements. He founded Darolfonoon, the first European-style upper-level secondary school in Persia in 1848 which taught modern sciences languages.

Omar Khayyam
Ghiyas Od-Din Abul-Fatah Omar Ibn Ibrahim Khayyam Nishaburi, (1048-1131 CE), was a Persian poet, mathematician, philosopher and astronomer. His substantial mathematical contributions include his Treatise on Demonstration of problems of Algebra, which gives a geometric method for solving cubic equations by intersecting a hyperbola whit a circle. He also contributed to a reform in Persian calendar. Khayyam derived the binomial theorem before it was formulated by Isaac Newton in 17th century.

Sheikh Muslih Ud-Din Saadi Shirazi (1184-1283) was one of the major Persian poets of the medieval course. The following verses by Saadi are used to grace the entrance to the hall of Nations of the UN building in New York:
“Human beings are members of a whole, in creation of one essence and soul.
If one members is afflicted with pain,
Other members uneasy will remain.
If you have no sympathy for human pain,
The name of human you cannot retain.”
He was buried in Shiraz in a garden called Saadiyyeh.

Khwaja shams Ud-Din Muhammad Hafez-e Shirazi (birth 1310/1337 CE) simply Hafez, was a Persian mystic and poet. He was born sometime between the years 1310 and 1337 in Shiraz. John Payne, who has translated the Diwan of Hafez, regards Hafez as the greatest poet of the world.

Mawlana Jalal ad-Din Muhammad (Molavi)
Mulana Jalal ad-Din Muhammad who is best known for his didactic epic Masnavi-ye Maanavi (spiritual Couplets) and the collection of his Lyric poems, Divan-e Shams. He was born in Balkh which is in Afghanistan today and he is  one of the greatest Sufi mystics and poet in the Persian language..

Nima Yushij
Ali Esfandiari (November 12, 1896-January 6, 1960), often known by his penname Nima, was a contemporaneous Iranian poet. He often is considered the father of modern Persian poetry, introducing many techniques and forms to differentiate the modern from the old. Ever the less, the credit for popularizing this new literary form within a country and culture solidly based on a thousand years of classical poetry goes to his few disciples such as Ahmad Shamlu, who adopted Nima’s methods and tried new techniques modern poetry.

Prof. Mahmud Hesabi
Mahmud Hesabi (Mahmood Hessaby) (February 23, 1903, Tehran September 3,1992, Geneva) was a prominent Iranian scientist, researcher and distinguished professor  of University of Tehran.

Ibn Sina (Avicenna)
Ibn Sina wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects. His most famous works are the book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and the canon of medicine, which was a standard medical text at many Islamic and European universities up until the early 19th century. The canon of medicine was used as a text-book in the universities of Montpellier and Louvain as late as 1650.A crater on the moon is named after Avicenna. His mausoleum is in Hamadan. He commonly known in English by his Latinized name Avicenna. He was a Persian polymath and the foremost physician and Islamic philosopher of his time- he was also an astronomer, chemist, logician, mathematician, poet, psychologist, physicist, scientist, Sheikh, soldier, statesman and theologian.

Zakariya Razi
Zakariya Razi was a Persian alchemist, chemist, physician, philosopher and scholar. According to Biruni, Razi was born in Ray (city in tehran), Iran, in the year 865 CE (251 AH), and died there in 925 CE (313 AH). Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to the fields of medicine, alchemy, and philosophy, recorded in over 184 books and articles in various fields of science.